• Imaging of electrostatic potential with 300 nm spatial and 100 ms temporal resolution.
  • Measurement of the surface potential of particles, droplets, and liposomes with > 30 nm size range.
  • Water structure at interfaces.
Technological Application Surface Electrostatic

(Left) Using water as a label-free probe of membrane electrostatics, (Right) Water molecules at the membrane interface are oriented by surface charge providing label-free contrast. Read about the article here.